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At the lower border of medulla antibiotic diarrhea treatment buy betaroxime 250mg amex, pyramidal tract on each side is divided into two bundles of unequal sizes virus in jamaica purchase betaroxime 500 mg free shipping. While crossing the midline antibiotic guideline 250mg betaroxime sale, the fibers of both sides form the pyramidal decussation antibiotics news generic 500 mg betaroxime amex. In spinal cord Fibers which cross the midline and form pyramidal decussation descend through posterior part of lateral white column of spinal cord. This bundle of crossed fibers is called the crossed pyramidal tract or lateral corticospinal tract or indirect corticospinal tract. Remaining 20% of fibers do not cross to the opposite side but descend down through the anterior white column of the spinal cord. This bundle of uncrossed fibers is called the uncrossed pyramidal tract or anterior corticospinal tract or direct corticospinal tract. Since, the fibers of this tract terminate in different segments of spinal cord, this tract usually gets thinner while descending through the successive segments of spinal cord. Before termination, majority of the fibers of this anterior corticospinal tract cross to the opposite side at different levels of spinal cord. Termination All the fibers of pyramidal tracts, both crossed and uncrossed fibers, terminate in the motor neurons of anterior gray horn either directly or through internuncial neurons. Axons of the motor neurons leave the spinal cord as spinal nerves through anterior nerve roots and supply the skeletal muscles. Neurons giving origin to the fibers of pyramidal tract are called the upper motor neurons. Fibers of the pyramidal tracts transmit motor impulses from motor area of cerebral cortex to the anterior motor neurons of the spinal cord. Effects of lesion Lesion in the neurons of motor cortex and the fibers of pyramidal tracts is called the upper motor neuron lesion. Lesion of pyramidal fibers occurs most commonly in stroke (cardiovascular accident) due to hemorrhage and thrombosis. During such lesions, many extrapyramidal fibers are also damaged along with pyramidal fibers. Because of this reason, neurologists often consider the lesion as upper motor neuron lesion and not as pyramidal tract lesion. The spasticity is due to the failure of inhibitory impulses from upper motor neurons, particularly the neurons of extrapyramidal system to reach the -motor neurons in spinal cord. Reflexes All the superficial reflexes are lost and the deep reflexes are exaggerated. Effects of Lesion at Different Levels Cerebral cortex Lesion of pyramidal tract fibers in cerebral cortex causes hypertonia, spasticity and contralateral monoplegia (paralysis of one limb) or contralateral hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of the body). Internal capsule Lesion of pyramidal tract fibers at posterior limb of internal capsule results in contralateral hemiplegia. Spinal cord Unilateral lesion of lateral corticospinal fibers at upper cervical segment causes ipsilateral hemiplegia and bilateral lesion causes quadriplegia (paralysis of all four limbs) and paralysis of respiratory muscles. Bilateral lesion of these fibers in thoracic and lumbar segments results in paraplegia (paralysis of both lower limbs) without paralysis of respiratory muscles. Origin Actually, this tract is the extension of medial longitudinal fasciculus of brainstem. Course Fibers of this tract run down from medulla into the anterior column of spinal cord along the periphery.


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Secretory Activity of Apocrine Glands Apocrine sweat glands are nonfunctional till puberty and start functioning only at the time of puberty infection game online purchase 250mg betaroxime otc. When microorganisms grow in this secretion antibiotics for stubborn uti cheap betaroxime online master card, a characteristic odor develops in the regions where apocrine glands are present antimicrobial kitchen countertops purchase betaroxime with amex. The coiled portion is formed by single layer of columnar or cuboidal epithelial cells bacteria h pylori espanol purchase betaroxime with a visa, which are secretory in nature. Secretory Activity of Eccrine Glands Eccrine glands function throughout the life since birth. Nerve supply Eccrine glands Throughout the body Exterior through sweat pore Function throughout life Clear and watery Play important role in temperature regulation During increased temperature and emotional conditions Under nervous control Sympatheticcholinergicfibers Apocrine glands Only in limited areas like axilla, pubis, areola and umbilicus Into the hair follicle Start functioning only at puberty Thick and milky Do not play any role in temperature regulation Only during emotional conditions Under hormonal control Sympatheticadrenergicfibers 358 Section 5 t Renal Physiology and Skin Apocrine glands do not play any role in temperature regulation like eccrine glands. Control of Apocrine Glands Apocrine glands are innervated by sympathetic adrenergic nerve fibers. Glands of eyelids, glands of external auditory meatusandmammaryglandsarethemodifiedapocrine glands. Pheromones Pheromones are a group of chemical substances that are secreted by apocrine glands. When secreted into environment by an organism, pheromones produce some behavioral or physiological changes in other members of the same species. Pheromones are mostly present in urine, vaginal fluid and other secretions of mammalsandinfluencethebehaviorandreproductive cycle in these animals. Recently, it is found that the pheromones excreted in axilla of a woman affects the menstrual cycle of her room-mate or other woman living with her. Vomeronasal receptors are distinct from other olfactory receptors and detect specially the odor of pheromones. Impulses from these receptors are transmitted to hypothalamus, which influences the menstrual cycle via pituitary gonadal axis. This effect of pheromones on the menstrual cycle of other individuals is called dormitory effect. Core Temperature Core temperature is the average temperature of structures present in deeper part of the body. Age In infants, the body temperature varies in accordance to environmental temperature for the first few days after birth. It is because the temperature regulating system does not function properly during infancy. In old age, since the heat production is less, the body temperature decreases slightly. Sex In females, the body temperature is less because of low basal metabolic rate, when compared to that of males. Exercise During exercise, the temperature raises due to production of heat in muscles. Menstrual cycle In females, immediately after ovulation, the temperature rises (0. Pathological Variations Abnormal increase in body temperature is called hyperthermia or fever and decreased body temperature is called hypothermia (Refer applied physiology in this Chapter). Metabolic Activities Major portion of heat produced in the body is due to the metabolism of foodstuffs. About 9 calories of heat is produced during metabolism of fats, when 1 L of oxygen is utilized. Muscular Activity Heat is produced in the muscle both at rest and during activities.

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When red blood cells or other cells are placed in hypotonic fluid antibiotics for sinus infection cipro order 500 mg betaroxime otc, water moves into the cells (endosmosis) and causes swelling of the cells antibiotic cefdinir purchase betaroxime 250 mg fast delivery. Now the red blood cells become globular (sphereocytic) and get ruptured (hemolysis) antibiotic resistance symptoms buy 250mg betaroxime with visa. Dehydration becomes little serious and immediate treatment should be given by rehydration antibiotics quotes purchase 250 mg betaroxime overnight delivery. When fluid loss is more than 15%, dehydration becomes very severe and life threatening. On the basis of ratio between water loss and sodium loss, dehydration is classified into three types: 1. Isotonic dehydration: Balanced loss of water and sodium as in the case of diarrhea or vomiting. Hypotonic dehydration: Loss of more sodium than water as in the case of excess use of diuretics. The important mechanisms involve hypothalamus (Chapters 4, 149) and kidneys (Chapter 53). In mild dehydration, the best treatment is drinking of water and stopping fluid loss. However, in severe dehydration drinking water alone is ineffective because it cannot compensate the salt loss. This solution contains anhydrous glucose, sodium chloride, potassium chloride and trisodium citrate. In case of very severe dehydration, proper treatment is the intravenous administration of necessary water and electrolytes. Causes Water intoxication occurs when more fluid is taken than that can be excreted. Excess loss of water through urine due to endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus and adrenal insufficiency 4. Prolonged physical activity without consuming adequate amount of water in hot environment 6. Excess sweating leading to heat frustration (extreme loss of water, heat and energy). Severe sweating and dehydration occur while spending longer periods on regular basis in the saunas 7. Dryness of the mouth Excess thirst Decrease in sweating Decrease in urine formation Headache Dizziness Weakness Cramps in legs and arms. Decrease in blood volume Decrease in cardiac output Low blood pressure Hypovolemic cardiac shock Fainting. Damage of organs like brain, liver and kidneys Mental depression and confusion Renal failure Convulsions Coma. Dehydration in Infants Infants suffering from severe diarrhea and vomiting caused by bacterial or viral infection, develop dehydration. Infants have greater risk of developing water intoxication in the first month of life, when the filtration mechanism of the kidney is underdeveloped and cannot excrete the fluid rapidly 6. Water intoxication is also common in children having swimming practice, since they are more prone to drink too much of water while swimming 7. An adult (whose heart and kidneys are functioning normally) can develop water intoxication, if the person consumes about 8 L of water everyday regularly. Since the brain is more vulnerable to the effects of water intoxication, behavioral changes appear first 2.

The child should be given four feeds a day at four-hourly intervals but no feeds should be given during the night bacterial 2 hybrid order betaroxime with mastercard. Breast-fed babies are virus scanner free purchase betaroxime online pills, therefore antibiotic resistance transfer order betaroxime 500mg line, less prone to antibiotic uti best 250mg betaroxime gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases. When a mother can partly feed a child, she should give it two feeds of her own and two bottle feeds or one of her own and three bottle feeds. Those mothers who suffer from diseases like high blood pressure, diabetes, heart trouble, should not breast feed their babies. Where children are entirely breast-fed, they need nothing more than the milk they receive from their mothers. Children on bottle feed, should be given some orange juice daily,in addition to the. If they are given starchy foods such as bread, or oatmeal before weaning, it will lead to the early development of such child ailments as cough, colds, measles, whooping cough and so on as babies lack the proper enzymes needed for their digestion before that age. At the age of one year, a baby should be given about a litre of milk with fruit juices daily. If a baby shows no inclination for food or a certain day, it should be given as much as it wishes for and no more. The assumption that the baby should have a certain amount of food every day have no basis. On the other hand, if the baby does not appear to be satisfied with the quantity of its food and wants more at a feed, it should be given as much as it wants. This may occur any time before 28 weeks of gestation but is most common during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. When miscarriage occurs repeatedly at a certain period of pregnancy, it is termed " habitual abortion ". It is one of the most perplexing problems of gyanaecology and a major cause of maternal mortality. A woman who has suffered two or more terminations of this sort consecutively is said to be a case of habitual abortion. Symptoms Pains of the same character as labour pains and bleedings are the two main symptoms of possible abortion. In later weeks when the foetus is well developed, if it dies in the uterus, it leads to maceration of the body. Sometime after a few more days, the foetus gets dehydrated and the fluid surrounding the foetus gets dried away. Causes One of the most important cause of habitual abortion is a congenital malformation of the uterus. A hysterogram, before the woman becomes pregnant, will be useful in detecting any abormality, so that she is made aware of her case. Deficient functioning of the thyroid is another important cause of habitual abortion. Most cases of habitual abortion, however, result from an inadequate secretion of the female hormone progesterone. In the early stage of pregnancy, the gonadotrophin secreted by the cytotrophoblast of the chorion, one of the foetal membranes, stimulates the corpus lotemum to produce more oestrogen and progesterone, both essential female hormones. At a later stage, by about the 12th week of pregnancy, the placenta takes over the production and secretion of the hormones. Any deficiency of these hormones at this stage is detrimental to the growth of the foetus. It is, therefore, during this critical period,when habitual abortion mostly occurs. Lack of progesterone is especially instrumental in expelling the fertilised ovum and it results in an abortion.

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