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In 2006 68% of respondents assessed Western Europe as the most attractive region in the world infection control purchase cefpodoxime line, whereas in 2010 this percentage declined to antibiotics for sinus infection in toddlers order 200 mg cefpodoxime visa 38 infection gum cefpodoxime 200 mg without a prescription. The attractiveness estimation of Germany in this time slightly reduced from 18% in 2006 to home antibiotics for acne proven cefpodoxime 100mg 12% in 2010. The attractiveness of a region in this case is determined by the factors image, trust of investors and the estimation that the region offers the most potential for the foreign investor (Englisch, 2010). Last named is also reflected by the expectation of decision makers, that Germany will profit by a high degree of the financial crisis (Englisch, 2010). As requirements for these engines, investors expect a high educational level, high research and development expenditures and welldeveloped automotive industry (Ernst & Young 2012). The discussion shows, that especially the infrastructure, the qualification of the employees, the availability of research and development are crucial factors for the attractiveness of an investment region. The survey of Ernst & Young identified for the German economy a high assessment in the location factors logistic infrastructure (85% very appealing or fairly appealing), communications infrastructure (82%), qualification level of employees (82%) and in the availability and quality of R&D (78%). To meet the target, qualitative primary data is raised through semi-structured interviews with German companies which have a Chinese investor. Furthermore, M&A transactions are analysed whereas greenfield investments are excluded because of the lack of a German company history. On this basis, a sample according to branches was specified and a semi-structured questionnaire as guideline for the telephone interviews was developed. In order to validate and check the comprehensibility and the clearness of the questions, the qualitative interview guideline has been pre-tested with one company. Thus, the interview guideline is validated and the pre-test could be included in the analysis as well. The final version for the semi-structured questionnaire is presented in the appendix. Findings By aggregating all challenges into one illustration as shown in figure 8, it becomes obvious that examined challenges are categorised more often as very big and big challenge compared to small challenge or no challenge. Consequently, participating companies still face considerable challenges with the linguistic and cultural challenge at the top. Due to significant differences between Chinese and German culture, approaching the Chinese investor demands a totally different thinking. Linguistic challenge Management style of Chinese investor Transparent decision and communication of Chinese investor Cultural difference Type and duration of decision making Knowledge of Chines investor about German laws Figure 8: Challenges of collaboration with Chinese investors As indicated in figure 9, the collaboration with the Chinese investor was classified by five respondents as positive, by two even as very positive and one does not specify the collaboration. With regard to the classification not specified, the answer implies that the collaboration is not seen positively in order to avoid a negative answer. Although considered challenges are categorised more than twice as very big or big challenge compared to the answer possibilities small and no challenge, the collaboration is perceived positively by the majority of the respondents. Consequently, as long as the willingness and continuing efforts by German and Chinese company is ensured, the Sino-German collaboration works. Three of the participating companies were given job security and four a guarantee for the German location for example via letter of intent. Other participants report from indirect job guarantees because the German company intended to give their employees a guarantee and the Chinese partner agreed to their resolution. German companies were given medium to long-term location guarantees but even when the guarantee is ending, respondents see no indicators that the Chinese investors change their strategy.
Moreover infection game cefpodoxime 200 mg on line, military coups are often justified antibiotic xacin discount cefpodoxime 100 mg with mastercard, as was the case in Chile in 1973 virus 68 sintomas buy 100 mg cefpodoxime visa, by the argument that the government had itself violated the constitution bacteria zapper for face buy 200 mg cefpodoxime with amex, with the military presenting itself as the defender of this law. Another, superficially more useful way of coercing the military is that which has often been adopted by political dictatorships, namely of building up a parallel force or forces to keep the military under control. As a means of controlling the civilian population, this policy was certainly effective, but in practice it failed to control the German military in any meaningful sense. Although this was an open secret and very high-level officers were involved, the Nazi apparatus failed to discover them. What these examples, and others like them, have in common is an assumption that the military needs to be controlled at all times since it will otherwise burst out of its chains and take over. Depending on the overall political situation, the real task is either (or both) to: Bind the military to society and civil power in such a way that it never develops into a separate group with its own agenda, and is therefore accepted by civil society as legitimate, or Demonstrate in practical and symbolic terms the subordination of the military to civil power. Thus, to return to the example of the constitution, a clause that the president is the head of the armed forces has no prescriptive force unless they themselves accept this situation. There has been far too much concentration on formal and institutional methods of control, no doubt because these are easy to understand and document. Far more effective are informal methods, which vary greatly between countries, but are especially strong and important in consensus-based societies such as many in Africa and Asia. These informal methods include the penetration of military and civilian elites, the involvement of civil society in policy-making, frequent contacts between the military and civil society groups, a closer working relationship between military and civilians, etc. Such methods are difficult to document and might not always be apparent, but, as will become clear in the remainder of this book, they are the heart of civil control in the best sense of the term. We also have to recognise that the nature of relations between the military and the state varies greatly from country to country. In countries where this culture is less developed, the problems can be much more fundamental and their resolution can be critical to the future of the country itself. There are cases where a civilian government follows a brutal, dictatorial or corrupt military, and where the new government will be concerned with ensuring that the fragile democratic regime stays in place. The process will require a mixture of formal and informal approaches which will be unashamedly drawn from the world of practical politics, rather than from textbooks, and could include the following strategies: Normalisation therapy. Militaries are acutely aware that they are members of an international brotherhood that has norms and standards. The military of a previously isolated regime will look for acceptance by its equals and would be disappointed not to get it. A military that has not given up political ambitions will find itself unwelcome or frozen out of the military tourist circuit of staff colleges, conferences and defence trade fairs. Adoption of international norms thus offers considerable rewards for those who might otherwise be tempted to return to the old ways. In addition, the importance of exposure to new ways of doing things that foreign travel and contact with foreigners tend to produce is a significant factor as well. Quite often, unacceptable behaviour by a military is the product of ignorance and isolation, rather than anything more deep-seated. As I have suggested already, a military that has no proper role will often turn to politics instead. A new democratic regime should devote time and effort to defining roles and missions for the military aimed at making it more professional. A government should have no scruples to make use of the natural ambition of individuals. Promotion should be restricted to those who demonstrate a commitment to democratic politics.
Seale antimicrobial socks generic cefpodoxime 100mg without prescription, Predicting total energy expenditure from self-reported dietary records and physical characteristics in adult and elderly men and women antimicrobial toilet seats discount cefpodoxime 100mg otc, Am antibiotics for uti in humans purchase cefpodoxime 200 mg overnight delivery. Bogle bacteria questions and answers order 100mg cefpodoxime visa, the use of telephone interview methodology to obtain 24-hour dietary recalls, J. Winter, Eight self-administered 24-hour dietary recalls using the Internet are feasible in African Americans and Whites: the energetics study, J. Jardack, Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites, Am. Tapsell, Overview of computerized dietary assessment programs for research and practice in nutrition education, J. Willett, Application of a repeat-measure biomarker measurement error model to 2 validation studies: examination of the effect of within-person variation in biomarker measurements, Am. Ballard-Barbash, Low energy reporters vs others: a comparison of reported food intakes, Eur. Prentice, Assessment of selective under-reporting of food intake by both obese and non-obese women in a metabolic facility, Int. Kipnis, Psychosocial predictors of energy underreporting in a large doubly labeled water study, Am. Dietary assessment primer, Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute. Relative importance of questionnaire length and cognitive ease on response rates and data quality for two dietary questionnaires, Am. Development of a method of classifying the diets of individuals for use in epidemiological studies, J. Larkin, Partitioning macronutrient intake estimates from a food frequency questionnaire, Am. Baron, Evaluation of two food frequency methods of measuring dietary calcium intake, Am. Guire, Comparison of two dietary questionnaires validated against multiple dietary records collected during a 1-year period, J. Hsi, Comparison of a food frequency questionnaire using reported vs standard portion sizes for classifying individuals according to nutrient intake, J. Klesges, Precision and estimated accuracy of two short-term food frequency questionnaires compared with recalls and records, J. Kahle, Differences in reported food frequency by season of questionnaire administration: the 1987 National Health Interview Survey, Epidemiology 5 (1994) 226А233. Tsugane, Temporal change in the reproducibility of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire, Am. Owen, Mailed dietary surveys: response rates, error rates, and the effect of omitted food items on nutrient values, Epidemiology 2 (1991) 430А436. Galanti, Diet-associated risks of disease and self-reported food consumption: how shall we treat partial nonresponse in a food frequency questionnaire? De Henauw, Validity and reproducibility of an adolescent web-based food frequency questionnaire, J. Lamarche, Validity and reproducibility of a web-based, selfadministered food frequency questionnaire, Eur. Smith, Cognitive psychological issues of relevance to the validity of dietary reports, Eur. Pivonka, Estimating fruit and vegetable intake using food frequency questionnaires: a comparison of instruments, Am. Willett, Variability in portion sizes of commonly consumed foods among a population of women in the United States, Am. Subar, Estimates of nutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire: the 1987 National Health Interview Survey, J.
Then we compare the two situations in order to bacteria worksheets buy cefpodoxime online pills introduce the second research question 0g infection purchase cefpodoxime 200mg amex. Thanks to antibiotics for uti drinking order cefpodoxime in united states online this ratio antimicrobial irrigation purchase generic cefpodoxime canada, we can analyse the impact of investments on the overall operating result in order to evaluate the effects of a specific investment policy. Intangible assets are initially measured at cost, subsequently measured at cost or using the revaluation model, and amortised on a systematic basis over their useful lives, unless the asset has an indefinite useful life, in which case it is not amortised. Technological Sector 30,000,000 25,000,000 Investments 20,000,000 15,000,000 Intangible assets Tangible assets 10,000,000 5,000,000 2007 2008 2009 2010 Years 2011 2012 2013 Figure 1. Investments in Italian companies listed on the Technology sectoral Index Figure 2 instead shows what kind of investments were made by industrial companies during the same period. Investments in Italian companies listed on the Industry sectoral Index the two figures demonstrate that the initial main hypothesis is true. In fact companies listed in the Italian Stock Exchange and belonging to the technological sector invest the majority of their capital in intangible assets, while listed firms related to the Industry index have the tendency to invest in tangible assets. After individuating the specific policy of investments, we want to focus on the trend of these elements and on the operating income in order to understand first of all if they have the same evolution during the period analyzed. In fact in technological companies, if the amount of intangible investments remained stable, the operating income decreased considerably. On the contrary, in industrial companies tangible assets and the operating income do not have the same trend, except in the first two years. In fact, in 2010 tangible assets declined significantly while the operating earnings rose. We decided to use the Pearson correlation ratio (p) for each sector in the period between 2007 and 2013. The correlation between intangibles and the operating income of the listed companies of the technological sample the present table confirms the previous comment on the related two trends of the technological companies. In this last case, the result was probably influenced by previous economic strategies, that we do not consider in this analysis. In the other years instead we can notice a moderate correlation, which grew in the last three years. The correlation between tangibles and the operating income of the listed companies of the industrial sample Even in this case, the Pearson correlation ratio of each year confirms what we have just commented before. In the industrial field there is no correlation between the investment policy in tangible property and the operating income. Tangible assets did not have a strong impact on the economic result, referring to the core competencies of the sample monitored for the research. Trying to give an explanation to this phenomenon, the operating income can be influenced not only by operating investments, but also by revenues and annual costs (Pisoni and Devalle, 2013; Bragg, 2007; Gibson, 2008). As a consequence, it is possible that property, plants and equipment may influence indirectly the operating margin through the amount of sales of products or services and the correlated revenues or through a specific cost policy. Tangibles are instruments through which, according to the Business Administration theories, the process of industrial transformation "input-output" can be set up (Potito et. Nowadays focusing investments on intangible assets means creating a distinctive and sustainable value and being much more competitive on the market because corporate intellectual property, such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies, goodwill and brand recognition can directly drive global sales year after year (Amin and Hasan, 2014; Warren, 2000; Zahra, 1999; Winter, 1987; Porter, 1985). In addition sometimes customers do not focus on the product or service, but on the brand: the more popular the brand, the more successful the company. Thanks to our study we have realized that even in Italy companies belonging to the industrial sector did not have the same good economic performance of the technological ones, nor the same perspective of growth and development. It is much more difficult to create value in a long-term period with only tangible investments. First of all, this study represents the first step of a far deeper analysis that can consider other variables, financial indicators and margins.
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