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By: K. Vibald, M.A., M.D.
Deputy Director, Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine
Severe malnutrition may cause considerable depletion of skin protein and collagen spasms prednisone cheap mefenamic 250mg with mastercard. Patients with kwashiorkor experience sequential skin changes in different locations spasms jerks order mefenamic on line amex. Hyperpigmentation occurs first spasms piriformis discount mefenamic 250mg, followed by cracking and stripping of superficial layers muscle relaxant vitamin purchase mefenamic 250 mg with visa, thereby leaving behind hypopigmented, thin, and atrophic epidermis that is friable and easily macerated. In contrast, the eyelashes become long and luxuriant and children may have excessive lanugo hair. Children with kwashiorkor experience hypopigmentation with reddish brown, gray, or blond discoloration. Starvation and malnutrition cause structural and functional deterioration of the intestinal tract, pancreas, and liver. The total mass and protein content of the intestinal mucosa and pancreas are markedly reduced. Mucosal epithelial cell proliferation rates decrease and intestinal mucosa becomes atrophic with flattened villi. Intestinal transport and absorption of free amino acids are impaired, whereas hydrolysis and absorption of peptides are maintained. Hepatomegaly is common in severe malnutrition because of excessive fat accumulation caused by decreased very-low-density lipoprotein synthesis and triglyceride export. Bradycardia (the heart rate can decrease to less than 40 beats per minute) and decreased stroke volume can cause a marked decrease in cardiac output and low blood pressure. For example, a hypocaloric diet in normal volunteers that caused a 24% decrease in body weight was associated with a 38% decrease in the cardiac index. Respiratory muscle function is altered by malnutrition, as evidenced by a decrease in vital capacity, tidal volume, and minute ventilation. However, when malnutrition is severe, decreases are seen in kidney weight, glomerular filtration rate, and the ability to excrete acid, excrete sodium, and concentrate urine. Severe undernutrition suppresses bone marrow red blood cell and white blood cell production and leads to anemia, leukopenia, and lymphocytopenia. Muscle function is impaired by malnutrition because of both a loss of muscle mass and impaired metabolism. Decreased "sodium pump" activity causes an increase in intracellular sodium and a decrease in intracellular potassium, which affects myocyte electrical potential and thereby contributes to fatigue. The weight and protein content of the brain remain relatively stable even during long-term starvation. Therefore, the integrity of the brain is preserved at the expense of other organs and tissues. Severe undernutrition causes atrophy of all lymphoid tissues, including the thymus, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Alterations in cell-mediated immunity cause impaired delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity and anergy. The ability to kill bacteria is diminished because of decreased complement and impaired neutrophil function. Malnourished patients are at increased risk for opportunistic infections and should be considered immunocompromised. Decreased plasma insulin concentrations and glucose intolerance are common in severe malnutrition.
Primary biliary cirrhosis is a well-defined inflammatory disease of intrahepatic bile ducts muscle relaxant yoga purchase 250 mg mefenamic with visa. Secondary biliary cirrhosis encompasses other causes of fibrosing biliary obstruction back spasms 38 weeks pregnant buy generic mefenamic on-line, including long-standing mechanical obstruction muscle relaxant anxiety purchase mefenamic 250 mg fast delivery, sclerosing cholangitis muscle relaxant kidney stones generic mefenamic 250 mg overnight delivery, and genetic or developmental diseases in which cholestasis is prominent. Although it is most common in whites from North America and Europe, cases have occurred in all races. The reason why prevalence appears to be increasing in Western populations is unknown. The inflammation is predominantly mononuclear cell and may be associated with granuloma formation. These pathognomonic features may be spotty and can coexist with features of later-stage disease. An autoimmune attack against the bile duct is probably an important pathogenetic element, but the precipitating event and contribution of genetic and environmental factors are not known. The disease typically occurs in middle-aged females, either as an incidental threefold to fourfold elevation of alkaline phosphatase or in evaluating complaints 808 of fatigue and pruritus. Symptoms resulting from malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin A, D, E, or K deficiency, may be evident. There may be symptoms attributable to other autoimmune diseases, especially dry eyes or mouth and arthritis. As the disease progresses, however, jaundice develops, the skin becomes dry, xanthomas appear, and liver and spleen enlarge but are non-tender. Once cirrhosis develops, symptoms of portal hypertension and liver failure may predominate. Increasing prothrombin time and decreasing albumin characterize the late stages of disease. Extrahepatic ductal disease should be excluded with an abdominal imaging procedure, but endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is not required unless there are atypical laboratory or clinical features. Survival is impaired even in asymptomatic patients, emphasizing the need to consider therapy in hopes of delaying the onset of late-stage disease. Prognosis can be predicted more accurately than in most other types of chronic liver disease by using time-dependent multivariate analyses based on age, bilirubin level, serum albumin level, prothrombin time, presence of gastrointestinal bleeding, and severity of edema; biopsy findings also may be incorporated. Alternatively, a serum bilirubin value of more than 10 mg/dL by itself is a remarkably accurate indicator of impending liver failure. These indices are important for determining optimal timing for liver transplantation (see Chapter 155). Although long-term follow-up (>4 years) is lacking, the drug clearly improves survival free of liver transplantation in patients with moderate or severe disease. Cyclosporine had shown early promise in a small controlled trial, but longer-term usage led to only modest efficacy combined with an adverse effect on renal function, which has dampened enthusiasm for its use. Other immunosuppressive agents have met with modest success in some patients, including azathioprine, methotrexate, chlorambucil, and prednisone. In addition to specific agents against the disease, management should include correcting vitamin A, D, E, and K deficiencies and using antipruritics, including cholestyramine (16 to 32 g/day). In rare cases of intractable pruritus, opioid antagonists and plasmapheresis may be beneficial. Liver transplantation offers excellent quality of life in most patients with end-stage disease.
The choice of elective operation depends on the type of gastric ulcer (Table 129-3) muscle relaxant for pulled muscle cheap mefenamic 250 mg without a prescription. The problem of an ulcerated cancer masquerading as a benign ulcer is more common than a benign gastric ulcer degenerating into a malignant one spasms near tailbone order mefenamic 250 mg visa. With the advent of endoscopy spasms under rib cage purchase mefenamic in india, fewer patients diagnosed as having a benign ulcer have an ulcerated cancer muscle relaxant medication prescription purchase mefenamic line. In the United States, carcinoma has been found in only 3% of resected gastric ulcers. Bleeding is a more serious complication in gastric ulcers than in duodenal ulcers. In a stable patient, the preferred procedure is distal gastrectomy that removes the ulcer and creates a gastroduodenal (Billroth I) anastomosis. Acid reduction and ulcer excision accomplished Behaves like duodenal ulcer More common in South America another approach, but this procedure is associated with very high recurrence rates in two types of gastric ulcers: those associated with duodenal ulcer and those located in the prepyloric area. In the less stable patient, ulcer excision alone or with vagotomy and pyloroplasty is recommended. If the ulcer cannot be excised, bleeding should be controlled by suture ligation; biopsy may be obtained if deemed safe or it may be postponed to subsequent endoscopy. For ulcers in the body of the stomach, some advocate that bleeding be controlled either by the combination of biopsy and oversewing of the ulcer or by excising the ulcer. The efficacy of this form of therapy has not been substantiated by published reports. In the stable patient the preferred and definitive procedure is distal gastrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis. Definitive operation should be avoided if the perforation is older than 24 hours, if the patient is frail or unstable, or if there is severe peritoneal contamination. In these circumstances, a lesser procedure may be considered, such as ulcer excision with vagotomy and pyloroplasty. In extremely ill patients, the ulcer should be sampled in four quadrants and patched with omentum, without the addition of an acid-reducing procedure. Recurrent Ulcer after Surgery Before the introduction of H2 -receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors, recurrent postoperative ulcer was considered a surgical disease. However, H2 -receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors have been shown to be effective in treating recurrent ulcer, particularly after previous vagotomy. In the absence of a surgically treatable cause of the recurrence (retained antrum, gastrinoma), medical therapy should be attempted; surgery should be considered only if medical therapy fails. The clinical presentation of recurrent ulcer includes pain (95%), hemorrhage or anemia due to occult bleeding (20-63%), obstruction (5-19%), and free perforation (1-9%). Endoscopy with multiple biopsies is the most useful method of establishing the diagnosis; the cause of the recurrence must be identified (Table 129-4). Ulcers recurring after peptic ulcer surgery depend on both the type of the primary ulcer. The incidence of ulcer recurrence is 5 to 10% after truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty, 4 to 11% after highly selective vagotomy, and less than 1% after vagotomy and antrectomy. The incidence of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in patients with duodenal ulcer disease is only 1:1000 but rises to 1:50 in patients with postoperative recurrent ulcer. If the ulcer recurred after previous vagotomy, modified sham feeding is performed to determine completeness of vagotomy. Investigation for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome includes measuring plasma gastrin in the fasting state, in response to intravenous secretin, and after ingesting a meal (see Chapter 130). However, a paradoxical rise in plasma gastrin after secretin is characteristic of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and not of postvagotomy hypergastrinemia.
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Platelets and leukocytes also appear to spasms of the larynx purchase mefenamic 500mg on line have unusual susceptibility to spasms right abdomen buy discount mefenamic 250mg on line lysis spasms while sleeping cheap mefenamic 500mg mastercard, and thrombocytopenia muscle relaxant yellow pill purchase mefenamic australia, granulocytopenia, or both are common and may be the initial manifestation(s) of the disease. The bone marrow is usually hyperplastic but may be hypocellular, consistent with aplastic anemia. The clinical course is variable and depends on occurrence of the life-threatening complications of progressive bone marrow disease or venous thrombosis. These patients lack the complement regulatory proteins present on the membranes of all normal blood cells, so their erythrocytes have an increased susceptibility to complement lysis. These erythrocytes appear to have markedly decreased levels of the complement control protein decay-accelerating factor, but they do not have the membrane deficit that leads to sensitivity to attack by the C5b-C9 complex. The diagnosis rests on the clinical picture and clinical laboratory measurement of a population of circulating cells with unusual sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis. It has been shown that all individuals have antibody molecules that recognize their own cells under conditions of low ionic strength. The Ham test is also positive with some, but not all normal sera from patients with a syndrome of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (hereditary erythroblastic multinuclearity with positive acidified serum). A prednisone dose of 15 to 40 mg every other day decreases the rate of hemolysis in some adult patients, but a response is by no means certain. During acute episodes, a higher dose given daily for a short period may help control the hemolysis. In patients with anemia, androgens, including the anabolic steroid danazol, may be effective. Acutely, iron replacement may result in increased hemolysis because of the formation and release of a new cohort of sensitive red cells, and hemolysis after iron replacement has been noted. Oral replacement should be used if possible, but parenteral iron therapy may be necessary when iron losses are very large. The clinical signs and 882 symptoms are identical to those of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Patients may have chronic hemolytic anemia or, occasionally, catastrophic intravascular hemolysis (quinidine type). Many autoimmune or drug-related hemolytic anemias are accompanied by thrombocytopenia and/or neutropenia as a result of similar pathophysiologic processes. The alpha-methyldopa type and its derivatives (such as levodopa) produce a clinical syndrome virtually identical to IgG-induced immune hemolytic anemia. This drug stimulates production of IgG warm-reactive antibodies with anti-Rh specificity. A primary mode of action of the drug in this disorder may be an alteration in immunoregulation that allows B lymphocytes that produce Rh antibodies to escape suppression. It is of interest that antinuclear antibodies develop in 15% of patients receiving alpha-methyldopa therapy. Of diagnostic importance is that almost all patients have IgG antierythrocyte antibodies present in their plasma as well. Sufficient IgG coating for hemolysis does not develop in most patients, but patients with the highest amount of erythrocyteassociated IgG appear to have the most significant hemolysis. The hapten type of drug-induced immune hemolysis classically develops in patients exposed to high doses of penicillin. A portion of the penicillin molecule or its active metabolites combines with the erythrocyte surface, acts as a hapten, and induces an antibody response directed against the penicillin-coated erythrocyte membrane.