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The sample size in a survey may provide a clue about the generalizability of the results antimicrobial vinyl chairs order cheap colitromin line. The sample size required for a survey depends in part on the size of the target population antibiotic vancomycin 250 mg colitromin with amex, the type of sampling antibiotic guide hopkins 250mg colitromin mastercard, and the frequency of occurrence of the variables of interest virus 7g7 part 0 buy colitromin uk. Sampling bias can occur if sampling procedures consistently overlook certain categories of people in the population. For example, telephone interviews omit people who do not have telephones and may oversample people who spend more time at home than others. This requires defining the population, sampling indi- 105 Critically Evaluating Survey Samples viduals from the population in some random fashion, and maximizing the response rate so no biases will be introduced into the sample. To learn what elderly people think about the social services available to them, a careful sample of the elderly population is needed. Obtaining the sample by going only to nursing homes would bias the results because these individuals are not representative of all elderly people in the population. In the study of high school students cited previously (Steinberg & Dornbusch, 1991), the population of interest was teenagers in the United States; however, the sample included only high school students in California and Wisconsin. Although this sample obviously excludes many potential respondents in other areas of the United States, it is superior to those used in previous studies of teenage employment. In the Steinberg and Dornbusch study, the researchers were not interested in accurately describing the number of hours that teenagers in the United States work; they were more interested in whether the number of hours that teenagers work is related to variables such as grade point average and alcohol use. Major polling organizations typically take great care to obtain representative samples. Many other surveys, such as surveys on marital satisfaction or dating practices published in a magazine, have limited generalizability because the results are based on people who read the particular magazine and are sufficiently motivated to complete and mail in the questionnaire. When Dear Abby asks readers to write in to tell her whether they have ever cheated on their spouse, the results may be interesting but would not give a very accurate estimate of the true extent of extramarital activity in our society. The survey must be carefully constructed so the feelings, thoughts, and behaviors you are interested in are measured accurately. If not, you will have problems with face validity and, ultimately, with construct validity. This section describes some of the most important factors a researcher must consider. Defining Research Questions the first thing a researcher must do is define the research questions. Before constructing questions for a survey, the researcher explicitly determines the research questions: What is it that he or she wants to know? In well-designed surveys, the survey questions correspond directly to research questions. Too often, surveys get out of hand when researchers begin to ask any question that comes to mind about a topic without considering exactly what useful information will be gained by doing so. Using Closed-Ended Versus Open-Ended Questions Questions may be either closed- or open-ended. With closed-ended questions, a limited number of response alternatives are given, and the respondent is forced to choose from these options. An example of a closed-ended question would be: "Which of the following problems is the greatest one facing our children today?
These accounts are enormously successful in getting us to antimicrobial resistance surveillance purchase generic colitromin canada imagine what it would be like to xarelto antibiotics purchase 500 mg colitromin overnight delivery be in similar circumstances antibiotic resistance discussion questions discount colitromin online american express, and they make us much more sympathetic toward those who suffer some bad fate antibiotics for sinus infection keflex buy cheap colitromin on-line. By themselves, however, there is no reason they should have much influence on our sense of the prevalence of some malady. Their impact on our compassion is perfectly justified; their influence on perceived commonness is not. Any testimonial, no matter how moving, represents the experience of only one person. We should not allow the depth of our feeling toward any one person to influence our assessment of how many such people there are. Implicit in the discussion throughout this chapter is the idea that many of the inaccuracies that are part and parcel of secondhand information have an unfortunate impact on what people believe. The Imagined Agreement of Others 7 the Imagined Agreement of Others Exaggerated Impressions of Social Support My opinion, my conviction, gains infinitely in strength and success, the moment a second mind has adopted it. We often exaggerate the extent to which other people hold the same beliefs that we do. Because our beliefs appear to enjoy more social support than is actually the case, they are more resistant to change than they would be otherwise. Thus, our difficulty in accurately estimating what other people think represents an important determinant of the maintenance of erroneous beliefs. A man who has yet to come to grips with his dissatisfaction with his wife might see evidence of marital discord in numerous relationships. Most of the recent research on this topic has focused on what has come to be known as the "false consensus effect. Francophiles think that more people * the idea that we overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs implies that this mechanism concerns beliefs that we already hold. This mechanism is thus most directly relevant to understanding the maintenance, rather than the formation, of erroneous beliefs. Because of this, and because this mechanism is so general that it serves to bolster almost any belief, it will receive less explicit discussion than the mechanisms discussed in earlier chapters when it comes to dealing with the specific beliefs addressed in chapters 8-10. We favor or oppose experimentation with sex, drugs, and various other "lifestyle" practices in part because of what we think other people think, or do, about these matters. We consider a theater production to be worthy or unworthy of our attendance partly by the number of people who line up to see it. When asked at the office to donate money for a "going-away" gift for someone, we usually try to find out how much others have given and then decide our own contribution accordingly. Within limits, this tendency to let the beliefs of others influence our own beliefs is perfectly justified. What other people think and how other people behave are important sources of information about what is correct, valid, or appropriate. Other things being equal, the greater the number of people who believe something, the more likely it is to be true; the more people who do something, the more we are well-advised to do the same. Unfortunately, our ability to utilize effectively the opinions of others as an important source of indirect information about the wisdom of our actions, or the validity of our beliefs, is compromised by a systematic defect in our ability to estimate the beliefs and W Motivational and Social Determinants of Questionable Belief the Imagined Agreement of Others are fans of French culture and cuisine than do Francophobes; drinkers believe that more people like to imbibe than do teetotalers. After agreeing or declining to wear the sign, the students were asked to estimate the percentage of their peers who would agree or decline. People do not always think that their own beliefs are shared by a majority of other people. Religious fundamentalists do not necessarily believe that most people have a similar orientation, although their estimates of the percentage of religious fundamentalists in the general population can be counted on to exceed similar estimates made by their more secular peers. Most of the recent research on the false consensus effect has been devoted to understanding why people unknowingly exaggerate the extent to which others share their beliefs.
These simmering problems came to virus websites buy cheap colitromin 250mg on-line a head in the spring after a sophomore posted a racial slur on Facebook antimicrobial yarns buy discount colitromin 500mg line. Baraka infection journal impact factor cheap colitromin 250 mg visa, in an act of defiance and consciousness raising antibiotics kidney pain buy colitromin 250mg with mastercard, intentionally made his audience uncomfortable, and that is exactly where I want my students as we dive into American history. This unit and the themes it established throughout the year forced them to question their progressive assumption that the "arc of the moral universe" always "bends towards justice" and to rethink the way they have consumed conventional narratives of our history and our present. They also provide a usable past, and maybe even motivation, as students contemplate their own role in their community and school during the era of Black Lives Matter. As so many of us sitting in that room were in a position of privilege, it was important to challenge and sometimes ignore the theory of history that tolerates and exacerbates that very privilege. Starting with a contemporary flash point is also a difficult way to begin the year. Ta-Nehisi Coates1 So the project that we are building is a love note to our folks. Part of the dialogue that we want to be having is around investment, around resourcing, around intersections, around how state violence looks in a multitude of ways and how it impacts us in many aspects of our lives. Alicia Garza2 other things included the messages "Build the Wall" and "Accept the Inevitable: Trump 2016" provoked student protests that led to the release of a statement from President Wagner that incited further student outrage. As I watched demonstrations and protests unfold as part of the Black Lives Matter movement I was struck by all the different ways that Black people and their allies were putting their bodies on the line to demand recognition of Black humanity. These contemporary disruptions reminded me of marches, sit-ins, and strikes of the past in Selma, Memphis, and Atlanta. I began to think about what we could learn if we were able to think about those historical moments and juxtapose them with our present political moment. Emory University was founded in 1836 in Oxford, Georgia about forty miles east of Atlanta. It was founded as an all-white, all-male, small liberal arts university that catered mostly to local families. The campus was moved to its present day Atlanta location in 1915, nestled in the upscale Druid Hills neighborhood. In the one hundred and eighty years since its founding, Emory has changed a great deal. Not only have the demographics of students and faculty changed radically (the class of 2020 is 49% white and 51% students of color, and 16% of students on the Atlanta campus are international), but Emory is now understood as a research one institution that, along with the ever-growing Emory Healthcare, is the second largest employer in the metro Atlanta area. Therefore, while it started out as a small liberal arts university that primarily served white families in the region, Emory has now become a global player in research, healthcare, and teaching. In 2011, Emory released a formal statement of regret for its involvement in slavery. The declaration acknowledges that Emory was founded in 1836 by the Episcopal Methodist Church in Oxford, Georgia and named after John Emory, a Methodist bishop who was a slave owner. Since the release of the proclamation, a number of incidents that have heightened racial tensions have occurred on campus. In 2013, former president James Wagner praised the "three-fifths compromise" as a good example of compromise in the Emory alumni magazine. Along with being adjunct faculty, I am also staff in a center that sponsored a university course on Ferguson. As someone who helped to develop the course, I attended about half of the classes and what I heard from students were critiques of the sexism, homophobia, and patriarchal nature of the Civil Rights Movement. Students were frustrated by the continued focus only on male leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. They also questioned a movement that would leave behind or diminish the work of Bayard Rustin because he was gay. These students were demanding new approaches to antiracist movements and were working on unlearning the mainstream narratives of past movements.
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