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Associate Professor, Mercer University School of Medicine
Some women experience a brief delay (two or three months) in becoming pregnant asthma bronchitis emphysema copd buy montelukast 5mg overnight delivery, but pregnancy rates are about the same as for women who never took the pill asthmatic bronchitis 4 weeks generic montelukast 4mg mastercard. Drug Interactions Advantages and Disadvantages the pill has a number of advantages asthmatic bronchitis diet purchase montelukast once a day. It does not interfere with intercourse asthmatic bronchitis symptoms mayo clinic order 4 mg montelukast free shipping, as do some other methods- the diaphragm, the condom, and foam. Indeed, it is sometimes prescribed for the noncontraceptive purpose of regulating menstruation and eliminating cramps. The pill can clear up acne, and it has a protective effect against some rather serious things, including endometriosis and ovarian and endometrial cancer (Hatcher et al. The side effects of birth control pills, discussed earlier, are of course major disadvantages. Another disadvantage is the cost, which is about $50 a month (or much less through a Planned Parenthood clinic) for as long as they are used. In addition, taking them correctly is a little complicated; the woman must understand when they are to be taken, and she must remember when to take them and when not to take them. The pill may also increase the metabolism of some drugs, making them more potent (Hatcher et al. Examples include some antianxiety drugs, corticosteroids used for inflammations, and theophylline (a drug used for asthma and an ingredient in, for example, Primatene). Other Kinds of Pills To this point, our discussion has centered chiefly on the combination pill, so named because it contains both estrogen and progestin. This variety of pill is the most widely used, but there are many kinds of combination pills and several kinds of pills other than combination ones. Combination pills vary from one brand to the next in the dosages of estrogen and progestin. The dose of estrogen is important because higher doses are more likely to induce blood-clot problems. Most women do well on pills containing no more than 20 to 35 micrograms of estrogen. Because of concerns about side effects due to the estrogen in the pill, current pills have considerably lower levels of estrogen than early pills; for example, OrthoNovum 1/35 has one-third the amount of estrogen of the early pill Enovid 10. The idea is to reduce total hormone exposure, although it may be about marketing more than anything else. The pills contain only a low dose of progestin and no estrogen, and were designed to avoid the estrogen-related side effects of combination pills. The woman takes one beginning on the first day of her period and one every day thereafter, at the same time each day. Progestin-only pills work by changing the cervical mucus such that sperm cannot get through, inhibiting implantation, and inhibiting ovulation (although while taking minipills, about 40 percent of women ovulate consistently). Progestin-only pills have a typical-user failure rate that is higher than that of combination pills. The minipill is probably most useful for women who cannot take combination pills-for example, women over 35 who smoke, or women with a history of high blood pressure or blood-clotting problems. Progestin-only pills are also useful for women who are breast-feeding and cannot use combination pills because they reduce milk production. Neither kind of pill should be used in the first six weeks after birth when breastfeeding, because trace amounts of the hormones can reach the infant through the breast milk.
In women asthma diagnosis order montelukast on line, low doses of cannabis are associated with increased sexual desire and sexual pleasure asthmatic bronchitis exercise discount montelukast 10mg on-line. It is possible that cannabis boosts the production of androgens in women asthma treatment baba ramdev purchase 4mg montelukast mastercard, leading to asthma treatment plan form cheap 10 mg montelukast visa the positive sexual effects. In men, moderate doses of cannabis appear to increase sexual desire while at the same time creating erection problems. Among drug users, cocaine is reported to be the drug of choice for enhancing sexual experiences. Chronic use of cocaine, however, is associated with loss of sexual desire, orgasmic disorders, and erectile disorders (George et al. The effects also depend on the means of administration-whether the cocaine is inhaled, smoked, or injected. The most negative effects on sexual functioning occur among those who regularly inject the drug. Crack cocaine is highly addictive, and the crack epidemic, especially in the inner city, often involves the exchange of sex for drugs (Green et al. Stimulant drugs, notably amphetamines, are associated with increased sexual desire and arousal in some studies (George et al. Crystal methamphetamine ("ice") is a recreational drug that is of particular concern because, while high on it, people have a tendency to engage in risky sexual behaviors (George et al. Crystal meth can also lead to paranoia, hallucinations, and violent behavior (Brecht et al. The opiates or narcotics, such as morphine, heroin, and methadone, have strong suppression effects on sexual desire and response (Segraves & Balon, 2003). Long-term use of heroin, in particular, leads to decreased testosterone levels in males. Table 1 provides a partial list of prescription drugs that can affect sexual responding. Some psychiatric drugs-that is, drugs used in the treatment of psychological disorders-may affect sexual functioning (Segraves & Balon, 2003). In general, these drugs have their beneficial psychological effects because they alter neurotransmitter levels and the functioning of Prescription Drugs the central nervous system. For example, the drugs used to treat schizophrenia may cause delayed orgasm or "dry orgasm" in men-that is, orgasm with no ejaculation. Some of the antidepressants, for example, are associated with problems of both arousal and delayed orgasm in men as well as women. A few antidepressants-most notably, bupropion (Wellbutrin)-have few sexual side effects and are becoming popular for that very reason. The list of other prescription drugs that can affect sexual functioning is long, so we will mention just two examples. Some of the antihypertensive drugs (used to treat high blood pressure) can cause erection problems in men (Segraves & Balon, 2003). Most of the research on Table 1 Drug Drugs That May Impair-or Improve-Sexual Response How It Affects Sexual Functioning Common Medical Uses 1. Substance Use and Abuse Alcohol Depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorders Bipolar disorder Schizophrenia High blood pressure nicotine opioids Endogenous: Endorphins Heroin Marijuana Sources: Ashton (2007); Meston et al. Research shows, though, that high levels of alcohol suppress sexual arousal, and repeated use of cocaine is associated with loss of sexual desire, orgasm disorders, and erection problems. Some of the drugs used to treat epilepsy appear to cause erection problems and decreased sexual desire, although epilepsy by itself also seems to be associated with sexual disorders. Women who are treated with drugs called aromatase inhibitors following breast cancer and surgery are highly likely to experience problems with sexual desire (Panjari et al.
Pelvic muscle strength of female ejaculators: Evidence in support of a new theory of orgasm will asthmatic bronchitis go away buy discount montelukast. A longitudinal investigation of peer sexual harassment victimization in adolescence asthma definition australia purchase genuine montelukast line. A meta-analytic review of research on gender differences in sexuality asthma treatment 1 year old montelukast 4 mg amex, 1993 to asthma treatment discount montelukast 10mg with visa 2007. Are severe depressive symptoms associated with infertilityrelated distress in individuals and their partners? Spinal cord injury and sexuality in married or partnered men: Activities, function, needs, and predictors of sexual adjustment. Organizing action of prenatally administered testosterone propionate on the tissues mediating mating behavior in the female guinea pig. An examination of the relationship between general life stress, racism-related stress, and psychological health among Black men. An analysis of social and motivational factors associated with male clients of sex workers. Volunteer bias in human psychophysiological sexual arousal research: To whom do our research results apply? Sexual and nonsexual boundaries in professional relationships: Principles and teaching guidelines. The functional neuroanatomy of male psychosexual and physiosexual arousal: A quantitative meta-analysis. The moderating effects of support for violence beliefs on masculine norms, aggression, and homophobic behavior during adolescence. Changes in how students use and are called homophobic epithets over time: Patterns predicted by gender, bullying, and victimization status. Sex worker victimization, modes of working, and location in New South Wales, Australia: A geography of victimization. Interpersonal communication and sexual adjustment: the roles of understanding and agreement. Childhood sexual assault victims: Longterm outcomes after testifying in criminal court. Gender socialization in Latino/a families: Results from two retrospective studies. Paternal depression in the postnatal period and child development: A prospective population study. White matter microstructure in female to male transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Treatment of compulsive sexual behaviour with naltrexone and serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Two case studies. Reciprocal associations between adolescent sexual activity and quality of youth parent interactions. The moderating roles of race and gender-role attitudes in the relationship between sexual harassment and psychological well-being. Sexual behaviors, relationships, and perceived health among adult men in the United States. Assisted reproductive technology and major structural birth defects in the United States. Sex and the attraction process: Lessons from science (and Shakespeare) on lust, love, chastity, and fidelity. Sex in advertising research: A review of content, effects, and functions of sexual information in consumer advertising.
Because it relaxes the sphincter muscle of the anus asthmatic bronchitis turn into pneumonia purchase discount montelukast on-line, it is used by those engaging in anal intercourse (Krilis et al asthma treatment images purchase montelukast without a prescription. Amyl nitrite is a potent source of nitric oxide and has its sexual effects by dilating the blood vessels in the genitals asthma symptoms quiz buy montelukast mastercard. It may asthma treatment using onion order 10 mg montelukast with amex, however, have side effects, including dizziness, headaches, fainting, and, in rare cases, death, so it can be dangerous. Are there differences in sensitivities between the aroused state and the unaroused state? In contrast to these street drugs, several prescription drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in treating male sexual dysfunction. Viagra is designed to increase the flow of blood to the penis and maintain the resulting erection. Cialis is intended to create the ability to have an erection up to 36 hours after taking it. Anaphrodisiacs Just as people have searched for aphrodisiacs, so they have sought anaphrodisiacs, substances or practices that would diminish sexual desire. Cold showers are reputed to have such effects, as is potassium nitrate (saltpeter). This substance contains nothing that decreases sexual drive, but it does act as a diuretic. In other words, it makes the person want to urinate frequently, which may be distracting enough so that they are not much interested in sex. There has been some medical interest in finding drugs that would decrease sex drive for use in treating aggressive sexual offenders. One such drug is cyproterone acetate, which is an antiandrogen as discussed earlier in this chapter. Sex researchers interviewed a diverse sample of adults and asked them about the difference between very good sex and great sex, as well as about the characteristics of the best sexual experiences they had ever had (Kleinplatz et al. The person felt a deep connection with the partner, even a sense of merging together for a time. This refers to the kind of emotional intimacy with the partner that is discussed in the chapter "Attraction, Love, and Communication. This quality goes far beyond the techniques of good communication discussed in the chapter "Attraction, Love, and Communication" and involves a total sharing between partners, as well as a nonverbal component of touching with exceptional sensitivity to the other. With a sense of humor and fun-not a dogged determination to perform well-the sexual interaction seemed like an adventure. A well-meaning friend or co-worker or roommate is trying to persuade you to solve a problem in the way they think will work. We noted in this chapter that alcohol may reduce inhibitions, but it does not improve performance. There is more information on alcohol and its effect on sexual functioning in the chapter "Sexual Disorders and Sex Therapy. You should, of course, also gather evidence about sexual dysfunctions if you want to address your concern. They found that two basic physiological processes occur during arousal and orgasm: vasocongestion and myotonia. The sexual response cycle occurs in three stages: excitement, orgasm, and resolution. They also provided convincing evidence of the existence of multiple orgasm in women. The sexual functioning of people with spinalcord injuries is particularly interesting for what it reveals about spinal cord and brain control of sexual responding. The Dual Control Model holds that two basic processes-excitation and inhibition-are involved in sexual response, and that our responses to sexual stimuli are shaped by culture and early learning.
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